Achomi is spoken by the people of southern Fars and western Hormozgan, as well as a significant amount of immigrant groups in other Middle East countries such as Kuwait and Bahrain. While native speakers call it Achomi, it is also referred to as Larestani, Khodmooni, or Lari. There are an estimated 150,000 speakers using the language.
There has been discussion of whether Achomi is a different language from Persian or if it is a dialect of Persian. However, “There are sharp distinctions between the grammatical structures and vocabularies of these two languages and this fact prevents mutual intelligibility” (Rahimi & Mansoori, “A Study of Personal Pronouns of Larestani as an Endangered Iranian Language“).
Indeed, Achomi is an interesting language because of how unstudied it is. The language is centered around the people of Lar, which is a poor part of Iran both historically and still today. Additionally, “As an oral language, Lari literature is scant and limited exclusively to poetry” (“Notes on a Journey through Lārestān, Iran“).
Unfortunately, because of these challenges, Achomi is in danger of extinction.
“Larestani and Kurdish have together retained a number of phonemic archaisms from the Middle Iranian stage that have disappeared in modern Persian.”
– Afsheen Sharifzadeh, “Notes on a Journey through Lārestān, Iran”
“Soqotri is under direct threat from the spread of Arabic. Generally, Arabic is the language of education, government, the workplace and public life, whereas Soqotri is spoken at home amongst family and friends.”
Soqotri is spoken by the Soqotri people on the island of Socotra and the two nearby islands of Abd al Kuri and Samhah. It is considered one of six Modern South Arabian languages, along with Bathari, Harsusi, Hobyót, Mehri, and Shehri.
As of 2015, there were an estimated 70,000 speakers. Soqotri is actually made up of many local dialects, and its vocabulary reflects the inhabitants’ pastoral way of life with extensive descriptions of natural resources.
Though the language has survived due to the island’s distance from the mainland, in recent times there are fears it may go extinct due to the “gradual replacement of the Soqot˙ri language through a combination of involuntary and voluntary inducements: the political push of Arabic and the economic pull of English” (Elie, “Cultural Accommodation to State Incorporation in Yemen“).
“Soqotri is a pre-literate language and as yet has no written form, and the rich and descriptive vocabulary and terminology handed down from generation to generation is an oral tradition” (Soqotri Cultural Heritage). With this and the threat of Arabic being exclusively used in schooling and work, there are realistic fears that the language will go extinct if not preserved.